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Economy, politics and population in Georgia


Its strategic position with an outlet on the Black Sea and the passage of the Silk Road within its territory have always favored Georgia in trade with various countries. The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major economic collapse. Although the Georgian economy has been recording positive developments since 2000, with real GDP growth rates reaching the 12% threshold, the unemployment rate is very high and incomes are far lower than the European average. The driving sectors of the Georgian economy are agriculture (approximately 11% of GDP) and tourism. More than 50% of the workforce is employed in agriculture, a sector strengthened after the uprisings following the fall of the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, high transportation costs within the country make local products more expensive than imported ones, forcing farmers to let their crops rot. Winemaking is the most important agricultural industry in Georgia, where the oldest quality wines in the world are produced. In 2007, after Russia banned imports of Georgian wine, wine sales plummeted. The tourism sector is growing more and more. According to the government, there are 103 resorts in the various climatic zones of the country; Attractions include 2,000 springs and 12,000 monuments. Recently in Georgia, the electricity sector was deregulated, providing free access to the energy market. Currently, the energy generated in Georgia comes mostly from hydroelectric plants, with the danger of having to import energy in periods of scarcity. at present it is possible to expand production through the renovation of existing plants and the construction of new power plants. Georgia is a semi-presidential democratic republic, in which the Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic. The President and the Cabinet, composed of ministers and the Prime Minister, hold executive power. It should be emphasized that the ministers of interior and defense are not part of the Cabinet of Georgia and are directly dependent on the President of Georgia. Legislative power is in the hands of the Georgian Parliament, which is unicameral and made up of 150 deputies.